Jean Marie Farina, an Italian perfumer, moved to Cologne in the early 18th century and in 1708 began producing an “admirable water” or“aqua mirabilis”, the name given to water created through distillation. Farina's water was produced using a mixture of essential oils and quasi- pure alcohol according to a technique imported straight from Italy, but he innovated by creating a fresh, perfumed water. Its lightness stood in stark contrast to the essences that existed at that time, such as cinnamon, sandalwood and musk oils. Farina's aqua mirabilis was initially a local success, but it gradually conquered the courts of Europe. It was later called “Eau de Cologne” thanks to the French Army, which popularized it after war campaigns in Poland.